Azure is one of the most top Cloud Service provider’s today and being on top is not possible without great Cloud infrastructure all around the world. Let’s see global infrastructure of Azure Cloud.
There are three main components which makes up global infrastructure of Azure.
1] Azure Datacenter
Datacenters are unique physical buildings located across globe with networked computer servers. Each Datacenter has its own networking capabilities, cooling and power. Datacenter is a heart of any cloud computing platform. These are most secured component of global infrastructure because it contains client data.
Below image depicts physical servers, each server stack has hard drives in it, also there is a cooling mechanism. You can imagine the whole building is contain with these servers, operational area, networking area, security (both physical and technical) and other things. These entire things are combined together we called as Datacenter.
2] Azure Region
Azure region is a set of datacenters deployed on the single geographic location. For example, Central US, South India etc. You will find Azure regions worldwide. Main benefit of region is to have high availability and fault tolerance. If power of any region goes down then still your application would run in other regions (If you only have deployed your application on multiple regions).
You can see in the below image that azure regions are spread across the globe. Also, constructions are going on for new azure regions too. All green dots you can see are working regions which you can use while setting up your application.
Note: Azure itself is deployed in multiple regions with more or less features and different pricing. So it is possible that on some regions you would see some azure services or features are not available and pricing also differs.
For more information you can explore Azure regions.
3] Azure Availability Zone
Azure Availability Zone is made up of minimum three zones within region. Single availability zone contains multiple datacenters buildings in it. Idea of availability zone is that you can deploy your application across multiple availability zones within region.
Suppose if one of the availability zone’s datacenters area facing issue then your application still can run within other availability zones. This gives you power of fault tolerance within region. Also, data transferred between availability zones is private and encrypted so there is a high level of security too.
You can see whole picture of one Azure Region below. Image from Microsoft.
A Region can have multiple availability zones (minimum three). Availability zones can have multiple datacenters and each datacenter has its own cooling, networking and power and hardware.
This will give you an idea of high picture of Azure global infrastructure.